3io HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION plan had to be considerably modified. The greatest success was achieved with the younger children, for whom the method of learning by means of games, pictures, and conversation was most suitable. The results were less satisfactory with the older children. But the whole experiment was foredoomed to failure by reason of Basedow's own limitations. He was a man of ill-balanced mind, better fitted to conceivejyrand schemesj.han to_carry them_out He could neither work steadily himself, nor exerasiTthe self restraint necessary to make use of the services of the splendid assistants whom the ideals of the Philanthropinum attracted to the institution. The consequence was that things went from bad to worse, till finally in 1784 Basedow severed his connection with it altogether, and it passed into other hands. But the reorgani- zation then effected came too late, and in 1793 the Philanthropinum silently disappeared with all the fair promises of its beginnings unfulfilled. Curiously enough, Basedow's personal failure did nothing to check the progress of the philanthropinist movement. Philan- thropinums, both great and small, sprang up in all directions in Germany and Switzerland under the direction of the men who had assisted him in Dessau, and other enthusiasts for the new pedagogy. Many of these shared the defects and the fate of the original Philanthropinum, but once again failure proved the pre- cursor to enduring success. This was especially true in the case of Joachim Heinrich Campe (1746-1818), who was called from the headship of a philanthropinic school to be Councillor of Education in Brunswick. Having failed to establish a school system indepen- dent of the Church, he retired from active participation in educa- tional work, and devoted himself to expounding the principles of the movement in collaboration with other philanthropinists, in a monumental work in sixteen volumes entitled General Revision of the Whole System of Schools and of Education (1785-1791). Campe was a man of good sense and judgment with a clear view of the interdependence of theory and practice, and his writings did much to disentangle what was of real value in philanthropinism from the mass of unpractical and ill-considered suggestions to which it had given rise. One way and another, with writings like those of Campe and the self-denying zeal of the best of Basedow's followers, the new ideals increased in influence in spite of the decadence of the institutions created for their demonstration.